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Methods

There are seven fundamental methods which form the basis of the mechanical testing for sensory texture attributes. These test types replicate all possible interactions between a consumer - or production processing or handling equipment - and the product itself.

Food Technology Corporation supplies fixtures which are designed to implement each test method.

 

 

Bulk Analysis
Compression
Extrusion
Puncture & Penetration
Bulk Analysis method
Compression Analysis method
Extrusion Analysis method
Puncture and penetration Analysis method
Shear
Snap, Bend and Break
Tension
 
shear testing
Snap, Bend and Break
Tension Analysis method
 

 

Bulk Analysis

Bulk analysis testing is used when it is not practical or representative to test an individual sample as a whole or component piece. Particulate products (e.g. reconstituted meats), or foodstuffs which contain small elements in an individual serving or mouthful (e.g. rice or beans), lend themselves to being analyzed “in bulk”. The test method combines compression, shearing and extrusion of the sample.

Bulk analysis testing of a burger simulates bite sensory is mouthfeelBulk analysis compresses and shearsBulk analysis method is ideal for reconstituted meat

 

Compression

Compression testing is a common and valuable texture testing method. Pure compression places the sample on a flat surface and an upper fixture, larger than the sample in its deformed state, is lowered into the specimen. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA), is a specialized derivative of compression testing. Localised compression, with a smaller probe, is also useful and may result in penetration of the sample.

Compression by chewing with the teeth is the sensory analysis for solid foodsTesting bread for freshness uses a compression plateCompression in Texture Profile Analysis testing fully describes mouthfeel

 

Extrusion

Extrusion testing has many applications for semi-solid products. The sample is normally placed in a cylindrical container and an upper fixture acts as a plunger to pass into the product, which flows either back around the probe (back extrusion method) or is forced out through an aperture in the base of the cell (forward extrusion method). Spreadabilty is tested with a conical probe and matching container.

Extrusion method simulates the sensation of handling a flowing semi-solid productBack extrusion causes flow around the probeZero fat yogurt firmness can be compared by back extrusion

 

Penetration and puncture

Penetration testing is very similar to compression testing with one key difference, the probe is typically much smaller than the sample being tested. Penetration refers to when the probe passes completely through a sample (a thin tortilla) or an element of the product (the surface generally, or the skin of a piece of fruit). Puncture is similar, meaning the probe passes into the sample, though not necessarily exiting.

 The sensory characteristics of biting a ripe apple uses penetration testingPenetration or puncture uses a thin probeFresh fruit ripeness test is achievd by the penetration method

 

Shear

Shear testing applies slicing or “shearing” into or through the product, which replicates the action of the front incisors when food is introduced into the mouth. This method also measures the resistance of the sample to being cut by a knife, when preparing or serving to product.

Shear testing of the cutting force simulates sensory input from handling firm meatShear method utilises a blade fixtureShearing a hot dog sausage tests its firmness when slicing

 

Snap, bend and break

Breaking or bending tests are commonly used for hard or brittle foods that snap. Some softer products are also tested with this method, where a degree of flexibility is desired, or intended to be minimised.

Snapping a biscuit is the sensory evaluation a consumer experiencesSnap testing a brittle bakery product measures freshnessSnap testing by 3-point bend can analyze cookie texture

 

Tension

Tension methods pull or stretch the test sample, usually to measure the elasticity or extensibility, and the ultimate strength of the product. The texture analyzer may pull the sample apart by moving the crosshead upwards, or the fixtures may enable tension in the product, even when using the system in compression.

Tension and elasticity in tortillas if the senrory inputTension testing stretches the sampleTortilla tesing by extrusion measures sofness and evaluates shelf life